Grammar Practice

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Studying the intricate rules of conventional modern English can be extremely painstaking. If you need extra practice, please use No Red Ink.

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This is a completely optional site that is just for extra practice.

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How do you access No Red Ink? Click on the link below, create an account, and join your class based on the class codes below. (No, I cannot change the class codes; they are pre-set.)

No Red Ink

World Literature:

Period 1’s Code: awesome ticket 86

Period 5B’s Code: long breakfast 45

American Literature:

Period 3’s Code: steep grape 2

Period 8’s Code: rich mouse 59

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Siddhartha

Author: Herman Hesse

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Who is Hermann Hesse?

Difference between Hinduism and Buddhism

Creation of Hinduism

 

Digital Version of Siddhartha

Comprehensive Glossary of Terms

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Siddhartha film (1972)


Writing Reflection:

Write a reflection explaining what sort of spiritual quest you would take.  How would you define the word spiritual?  What would be the purpose of your quest?  What would you search for?  What ideas might govern your quest?  How might you achieve the object of your quest?  What would be the outcome of your quest—not merely in terms of what you would have achieved at the end but also in terms of what you might gain in the process?

 

 

Writing Playlist (Feel Inspired):

The Harlem Renaissance

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1920-1930s

Langston Hughes

(the voice of the Harlem Renaissance)

1902-1967

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Hughes speaks at UCLA in 1967

Hear Hughes read his own poetry in 1967 as he speaks to the students at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Countee Cullen

1903- 1946

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Zora Neale Hurston

1891- 1960

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Claude McKay

1889-1948

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W.E.B. Du Bois

1868- 1963

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Jean Toomer

1894- 1967

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James Weldon Johnson

1871- 1938

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Nella Larsen

1891- 1964

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Wallace Thurman

1902- 1934

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Jessie Redmon Fauset

1882- 1961

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Alain Locke

1886- 1954

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Ralph Waldo Ellison

1914- 1994

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Racism Transcends the Harlem Renaissance and the Civil Rights Movement

Quick FYI:

  • Harlem Renaissance= 1920s- 1930s
    • declined with the stock market crash of 1929.
  • African American Civil Rights Movement= 1954- 1968
    • 1954- Brown v. Board decision declares segregation in public schools illegal.
    • 1968- Congress authorizes the 1968 Civil Rights Act, providing federal enforcement provisions for discrimination in housing. The 1968 expanded on previous acts and prohibited discrimination concerning the sale, rental, and financing of housing based on race, religion, national origin, sex, (and as amended) handicap and family status. This law enabled housing opportunities for blacks beyond the “ghetto.”
  • Timeline of Anti-Slavery and Civil Rights

Mississippi Burning Killings of 1964

  • Case was officially re-closed on June 21, 2016 (52 years after the incident)
  • As we watch the film Mississippi Burning in class, take notes on:
    •  the reasoning behind racial prejudice (a preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience) and discrimination (the unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, especially on the grounds of race, age, or sex).
      • How do the townspeople of Neshoba County, Mississippi justify their actions?
    • Why does racism persist even after such a literary period of seeming enlightenment?

 

 

Poetic Meter and Scansion

Meter and Feet

 

 

Marking meter in poetry is also called scansion.


Now for some notes:

Stress= /  (ictus)             Unstressed= U (breve) or  – (macron)

Iamb: one unstressed and one stressed syllable ( U / )  = iambic

Trochee: one stressed and one unstressed syllable ( / U ) = trochaic

Anapest: two unstressed and one stressed syllable ( U U / ) =anapestic

Dactyl: one stressed and two unstressed syllables ( / U U ) = dactylic

Spondee: two stressed syllable ( / / ) = spondaic

Disyllable Feet (2 syllables in each foot)

Trisyllable Feet (3 syllables in each foot)

Standard Poetic Feet: 

  • A “foot” refers to one unit (consists of two or three syllables) of poetic meter.
  • Meter defines the number of feet in a single line of poetry.

1 foot= monometer

2 feet: dimeter

3 feet: trimeter

4 feet: tetrameter

5 feet: pentameter

6 feet: hexameter

7 feet: heptameter

8 feet: octameter


Examples:

from “A Bird, came down the Walk”

u     /     u      /      u      /         u     /              (iambic trimeter)

Or Butterflies, off Banks of Noon

/               /      u     /       u       /                     (spondee, 2 iambs)

Leap, plashless as they swim.                                          *plashless= splashless

 

excerpt from “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe

/       u    /      u  /       u         /     u      /     u    /    u    /      u      /        u               (trochaic octameter)

Once upon a midnight dreary while I pondered weak and weary.

 

Your turn:

T’was the night before Christmas and all through the house.


Online Practice

Practice with Mr. Cooney’s English Class.

Practice prosody (the patterns of sound and rhythm used in poetry) here.

Practice online with the University of Virginia’s interactive tutorial. 

 


Additional Information:

Caesura (II) is indicated with a double-pipe (II) and signals a brief pause outside of the metrical rhythm.

  • initial caesura: near the beginning of the line
  • medial caesura: near the middle of the line
  • terminal caesura: (You guessed it!) near the end of the line

 

Comparative Essays

What is a comparative essay?

Examples:

Half-and-Half (text-by-text) Structure

  • Discuss all of A and then all of B.

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Point-by-Point Structure

  • Alternate points about A with comparable points about B

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Works Cited:

Walk, Kerry. “How to Write a Comparative Analysis.” The Writing Center at Harvard University. 1998. http://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/how-write-comparative-analysis

Plato’s The Allegory of the Cave

Who was Plato?


Short Writing Assignment

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If you could choose to live in a fantasy world for the rest of your life, would you choose the illusion or to remain in reality?

Length: 1 paragraph (MEAL)


Vocabulary

Please add the vocabulary words and definitions to your notes. You may find other vocabulary words as we read the text.

  • Allegory: a story in which the characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation
  • Illusion: implies a false ascribing of reality based on what one sees or imagines
  • Rationality: the possession or utilization of reason or logic
  • Theory of Forms:   (See below)

In-Class Reading of Plato’s “Book VII” Allegory of the Cave

 

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After Class Discussion

 

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

 

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Author: Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)

Published: 1885

  • Started writing the text in 1876

Setting: 1840s

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A Few of the Ever-changing Covers:

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Helpful Dates to Remember:

  • 1840s: Setting of Huck Finn
    • 1840-1920: Fight for Women’s Rights
  • 1861- 1865: American Civil War
    • 1863: Emancipation Proclamation
    • 1865: 13th Amendment of the Constitution ratified (“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”)
    • 1868: 14th Amendment of the Constitution ratified (citizenship of former slaves)
  • 1865- 1877: Reconstruction
    • 1870: 15th Amendment of the Constitution ratified (African American men can vote)
    • 1870s- 1960s: Jim Crow Laws
    • 1876: Mark Twain begins writing Huck Finn
  • 1878- 1889: Gilded Age
    • 1885: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn published
  • 1914- 1919: WWI  (The Great War)
  • 1890- 1920: Progressive Era
  • 1939- 1945: WWII
  • 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964 / End of Jim Crow Laws
  • 1965: the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • 1968: Fair Housing Act of 1968

Huckleberry Finn and the N-Word

Should the N-word be replaced with the term “slave?”

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Additional Resources:

Potential Huckleberry Finn Debate Topics

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  1. Huckleberry Finn is a racist novel.
  2. The N-word should be removed from Huckleberry Finn to make it more acceptable for a modern audience.
  3. Huckleberry Finn as the narrator knows more than a fourteen-year-old could possibly know.
  4. The use of dialect in Huckleberry Finn makes the book more of an artistic achievement.
  5. The character of Huck changes during the course of the novel.
  6. The ending of Huckleberry Finn prevents the book from being a “great” classic novel.
  7. The characterization of Jim is racist.
  8. Huckleberry Finn is “the great American novel”. Hemingway’s comment is true: “All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn…the best book we’ve ever had. There was nothing before. There’s been nothing as good since.”
  9. The novel of Huckleberry Finn itself contradicts his introductory note about “attempting to find a motive…a moral… [or] a plot”. (In other words, there is a motive, a moral and a plot to it)
  10. Huckleberry Finn Is an important record of American culture and history.
  11. The character of Huck has a good sense of humor.
  12. Mark Twain’s criticisms of society are still true today.
  13. Huckleberry Finn devalues the role of women.
  14. Huckleberry Finn should be eliminated from our school’s curriculum.
  15. The character of Huck is a worthy hero for a novel.
  16. The river is an important symbol in the novel and for all American literature.
  17. Huckleberry Finn is a book for children.
  18. Huck’s lies are moral.

Potential Mock Trial Topic

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  1. Mr. Twain has been charged with the crime of Racism. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is has been deemed a book that is racist and inappropriate for society.

 

Hanan al-Shaykh

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Born/ Raised: Beirut, Lebanon (1945)

  • Beirut is the capital of Lebanon
  • People from Lebanon are Lebanese
  • Languages spoken in Beirut: Arabic, French, English

Educated: Cairo, Egypt at America College for Girls

Currently Lives: London, England

Who is she?

  • journalist
  • contemporary novelist
  • playwright
  • List of her published books
    • A couple short stories from I Sweep the Sun Off Rooftops
      • “The Marriage Fair”
      • “An Unreal Life”

Al- Shaykh on what prompts her to write:

…Personally, I feel at home most when I sit and write. And at the beginning, you know, you usually concentrate on certain feelings you feel about things and then slowly, slowly, you start importing or inhabiting the soul of the characters. You can write about any character. It doesn’t have to be something you experienced or something you felt a great deal about. Like my latest novel, Only in London, one of my heroines, the character [Amira] is a prostitute, and the other one is a Lebanese man [Samir], homesexual. So in a way, I inhabited their soul and it becomes like a craft. Of course, the feelings should be always there. I wanted to use them as a vehicle, to say whatever I wanted to say about the Arab society in England.

  • Interview by Christiane Schlote for The Literary London Journal

Novelist Salman Rushdie interviews Hanan al- Shaykh regarding her passion for writing.


Works Cited:

BBC World News. “The Real Beirut, Part 1.” BBC Travel. YouTube. 28 Jan. 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-lKj7OMtO4

Beydoun, Lina. “Hanan Al Shaykh.” LEBWA. 17 May 2009, http://www.lebwa.org/node/7

Pen America. “Conversation: Salman Rushdie & Hanan al-Shaykh.” YouTube. 13 Aug. 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOXhzlN3jxQ&t=410s

Salibi, Kamal Suleiman. “Beirut.” Britannica. 7 Feb. 2012. https://www.britannica.com/place/Beirut.

Schlote, Christiane. “An Interview with Hanan al-Shaykh.” Literary London: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Representation of London, Volume 1 Number 2 (September 2003). Online at http://www.literarylondon.org/london-journal/september2003/schlote.html. Accessed on 27/11/2016