Plato’s The Allegory of the Cave

Who was Plato?


Short Writing Assignment

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If you could choose to live in a fantasy world for the rest of your life, would you choose the illusion or to remain in reality?

Length: 1 paragraph (MEAL)


Vocabulary

Please add the vocabulary words and definitions to your notes. You may find other vocabulary words as we read the text.

  • Allegory: a story in which the characters and events are symbols that stand for ideas about human life or for a political or historical situation
  • Illusion: implies a false ascribing of reality based on what one sees or imagines
  • Rationality: the possession or utilization of reason or logic
  • Theory of Forms:   (See below)

In-Class Reading of Plato’s “Book VII” Allegory of the Cave

 

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After Class Discussion

 

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

 

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Author: Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)

Published: 1885

  • Started writing the text in 1876

Setting: 1840s

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A Few of the Ever-changing Covers:

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Helpful Dates to Remember:

  • 1840s: Setting of Huck Finn
    • 1840-1920: Fight for Women’s Rights
  • 1861- 1865: American Civil War
    • 1863: Emancipation Proclamation
    • 1865: 13th Amendment of the Constitution ratified (“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”)
    • 1868: 14th Amendment of the Constitution ratified (citizenship of former slaves)
  • 1865- 1877: Reconstruction
    • 1870: 15th Amendment of the Constitution ratified (African American men can vote)
    • 1870s- 1960s: Jim Crow Laws
    • 1876: Mark Twain begins writing Huck Finn
  • 1878- 1889: Gilded Age
    • 1885: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn published
  • 1914- 1919: WWI  (The Great War)
  • 1890- 1920: Progressive Era
  • 1939- 1945: WWII
  • 1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964 / End of Jim Crow Laws
  • 1965: the Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • 1968: Fair Housing Act of 1968

Huckleberry Finn and the N-Word

Should the N-word be replaced with the term “slave?”

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Additional Resources:

Potential Huckleberry Finn Debate Topics

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  1. Huckleberry Finn is a racist novel.
  2. The N-word should be removed from Huckleberry Finn to make it more acceptable for a modern audience.
  3. Huckleberry Finn as the narrator knows more than a fourteen-year-old could possibly know.
  4. The use of dialect in Huckleberry Finn makes the book more of an artistic achievement.
  5. The character of Huck changes during the course of the novel.
  6. The ending of Huckleberry Finn prevents the book from being a “great” classic novel.
  7. The characterization of Jim is racist.
  8. Huckleberry Finn is “the great American novel”. Hemingway’s comment is true: “All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn…the best book we’ve ever had. There was nothing before. There’s been nothing as good since.”
  9. The novel of Huckleberry Finn itself contradicts his introductory note about “attempting to find a motive…a moral… [or] a plot”. (In other words, there is a motive, a moral and a plot to it)
  10. Huckleberry Finn Is an important record of American culture and history.
  11. The character of Huck has a good sense of humor.
  12. Mark Twain’s criticisms of society are still true today.
  13. Huckleberry Finn devalues the role of women.
  14. Huckleberry Finn should be eliminated from our school’s curriculum.
  15. The character of Huck is a worthy hero for a novel.
  16. The river is an important symbol in the novel and for all American literature.
  17. Huckleberry Finn is a book for children.
  18. Huck’s lies are moral.

Potential Mock Trial Topic

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  1. Mr. Twain has been charged with the crime of Racism. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is has been deemed a book that is racist and inappropriate for society.

 

Hanan al-Shaykh

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Born/ Raised: Beirut, Lebanon (1945)

  • Beirut is the capital of Lebanon
  • People from Lebanon are Lebanese
  • Languages spoken in Beirut: Arabic, French, English

Educated: Cairo, Egypt at America College for Girls

Currently Lives: London, England

Who is she?

  • journalist
  • contemporary novelist
  • playwright
  • List of her published books
    • A couple short stories from I Sweep the Sun Off Rooftops
      • “The Marriage Fair”
      • “An Unreal Life”

Al- Shaykh on what prompts her to write:

…Personally, I feel at home most when I sit and write. And at the beginning, you know, you usually concentrate on certain feelings you feel about things and then slowly, slowly, you start importing or inhabiting the soul of the characters. You can write about any character. It doesn’t have to be something you experienced or something you felt a great deal about. Like my latest novel, Only in London, one of my heroines, the character [Amira] is a prostitute, and the other one is a Lebanese man [Samir], homesexual. So in a way, I inhabited their soul and it becomes like a craft. Of course, the feelings should be always there. I wanted to use them as a vehicle, to say whatever I wanted to say about the Arab society in England.

  • Interview by Christiane Schlote for The Literary London Journal

Novelist Salman Rushdie interviews Hanan al- Shaykh regarding her passion for writing.


Works Cited:

BBC World News. “The Real Beirut, Part 1.” BBC Travel. YouTube. 28 Jan. 2011. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-lKj7OMtO4

Beydoun, Lina. “Hanan Al Shaykh.” LEBWA. 17 May 2009, http://www.lebwa.org/node/7

Pen America. “Conversation: Salman Rushdie & Hanan al-Shaykh.” YouTube. 13 Aug. 2010. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fOXhzlN3jxQ&t=410s

Salibi, Kamal Suleiman. “Beirut.” Britannica. 7 Feb. 2012. https://www.britannica.com/place/Beirut.

Schlote, Christiane. “An Interview with Hanan al-Shaykh.” Literary London: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Representation of London, Volume 1 Number 2 (September 2003). Online at http://www.literarylondon.org/london-journal/september2003/schlote.html. Accessed on 27/11/2016

 

 

Argumentative Essays

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Introductions

  1. Set the context –provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support
  2. State why the main idea is important –tell the reader why he or she should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon
    • This is where you add any background information or pertinent details.
  3. State your thesis/claim –compose a sentence or two stating the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility).

Body Paragraphs

  1. Strong topic sentence including your argument (reason) OR Transitional Sentence with your argument (reason)
  2. Evidence to support argument
  3. Warrant (Explanation)
  4. Counterclaim + Explanation
  5. Rebuttal to counterclaim + evidence + explanation
  6. Closing Sentence OR Transitional Sentence

Conclusion

  1. Begin with a starter to connect ideas in your essay (i.e.- mirroring your introduction, a quotation, etc.)
  2. Restate your thesis statement or main claim.
  3. Present 1 or 2 general statements which accurately summarize your body paragraphs.
  4. Set topic or argument in a larger context (how others are affected, cultural events, etc.)
  5. Provide a general statement of how the community will benefit from following/ accepting your claim.
  6. Establish a sense of closure.

Want a quick print version of this page? Open this handout. 

 

Writing Checklist

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This writing checklist will help you proofread your essay while you go through the drafting process. If you feel I should edit this document, please send me an email and I will make the necessary adjustments.

 

Works Cited

“Welcome to the Purdue OWL.” Introductions, Body Paragraphs, and Conclusions for an Argument Paper. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2016.

Creating Outlines

Follow the steps below to create your next outline. One fact will always remain true: the more specific you are in the planning stage, the better your final product will be in the end. If you have questions, please email me prior to the due date.

Please write a full sentence outline to make it easier to construct your essay.

When you add quotations, write them in MLA format with the accompanying citation.

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TITLE OF YOUR ESSAY

I. INTRODUCTION

A. Write a lead (hook) that will captivate your audience. (Check out this TYPES OF LEADS handout for assistance)

B. Write down background information on your topic.

1. What’s the time period, setting? Is that important for the audience to know?

2. Who are the major characters?

3. What does your reader need to know about those characters prior to reading your thesis?

C. Write down any pertinent information the audience should know prior to delving into your essay.

D. Conclude this first numeral with your thesis statement.

II. FIRST BODY PARAGRAPH Subtopic Sentence  (first argument if writing an argumentative essay)

A. First piece of evidence that supports this topic.

1. Detail #1

a. More detail

(1) Even more detail

(a) Even more detail about the above

(2) More detail

b. More detail

2. Detail #2

a. More detail (Counterargument?)

b. More detail (Refutation?)

B. Second piece of evidence that supports this topic.

III. SECOND BODY PARAGRAPH Subtopic Sentence  (second argument if writing an argumentative essay)

A. First piece of evidence that supports this topic.

B. Second piece of evidence that supports this topic.

C. Third piece of evidence that supports this topic.

1. Detail #1

2. Detail #2

IV. THIRD BODY PARAGRAPH Subtopic Sentence  (third argument if writing an argumentative essay)

V. FOURTH BODY PARAGRAPH Subtopic Sentence  (fourth argument if writing an argumentative essay)

*FOLLOW THE SAME FORMAT IF YOU HAVE MORE BODY PARAGRAPHS.

VI. CONCLUSION

A. Begin with a starter to connect ideas in your essay (i.e.- mirroring your introduction, a quotation, etc.)

B. Restate your thesis statement or main claim.

C. Present 1 or 2 general statements which accurately summarize your body paragraphs.

D. Set topic or argument in a larger context (how others are affected, cultural events, etc.)

OR

Provide a general statement of how the community will benefit from following/ accepting your claim.

E. Establish a sense of closure.